China Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Experience

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I. Characteristics of China's Earthquake Disaster

The mainland of China is squeezed by the Indian plate and the Pacific plate. It is located at the intersection of the two major seismic belts, the Pacific Rim Earthquake Belt and the Eurasian Earthquake Belt, and is the country with the most earthquakes in mainland China. The characteristics of China's earthquake and earthquake disasters are:

( A ) More earthquakes

20 century, occurred 16 times the average mainland Chinese 5 year --5. 9 magnitude earthquake; 4 times 6-6 . 9 earthquake; an average of 7 occurs twice every three years --7. 9 earthquake: 8 earthquakes were seven times. China's land area is 1 / 14 of the global land area , but the earthquake accounts for 1 / 3 of the global terrestrial destructive earthquake .

( b ) High strength

Global 8 earthquakes were 13 times this century, only 2 subcontinent 8 earthquake occurred in China.

(C) the wide distribution

In China, there have been five or more destructive earthquakes in each province . Among them, more than 6 earthquakes occurred in 3O provinces, and more than 7 earthquakes occurred in 2O provinces .

( 4 ) Shallow earthquakes and heavy disasters

Most of the earthquakes in mainland China were shallow-source earthquakes, causing heavy casualties. In human history, there were seven earthquakes that killed more than 200,000 people , and four in China . 20 century, the total number of global deaths due to the earthquake of nearly 1.2 million, China has nearly 6O million people, accounting for about half. In the 60 years since the founding of New China , the number of deaths caused by the earthquake has reached 360,000 , which is more than the total number of deaths caused by other types of natural disasters.

Second, the status of China's earthquake disaster emergency rescue

The Chinese government attaches great importance to emergency management. In particular , since the “SARS” incident in 2003 , several times have been carried out to comprehensively deploy emergency management, and important progress has been made in the construction of emergency management systems, mechanisms, legal systems, and preplans ( “one case, three systems” ) . The ability to send incidents has been significantly improved, and various types of emergencies have been effectively and timely disposed of.

With the Chinese government’s high priority, the China Seismological Bureau started from the characteristics of sudden, transient destruction, secondary disasters, and difficulty in forecasting earthquake disasters. It aims to explore “quick, efficient, and orderly” and explore. A road to rescue earthquake disasters with Chinese characteristics.

( I ) Four stages of earthquake emergency rescue in China

1966 - 1976 : Continuously accumulating experience from disaster relief.

1976 - 1989 : Proposed prediction, earthquake resistance, disaster relief measures.

1989--2000: the establishment of earthquake emergency concept, the earthquake emergency earthquake disaster reduction as an important part of one of four.

Since 2000 : Construction of earthquake emergency rescue system.

( II ) Emergency rescue contents for earthquake disasters in China

Emergency preparedness management, including ideological preparation, material preparation; plan management, including hierarchical classification, preparation, inspection, revision, drill, etc. of earthquake preplan; team management, including rescue team construction, training, and use; on-site management, including on-site command management , on-site social management, on-site rescue management, on-site news management, etc.; secondary disaster management, including the prevention and repair of damaged infrastructure, fire floods and other secondary disasters; disaster assessment management, the scientific basis for the government to carry out earthquake relief and reconstruction. Resettlement management, including resettlement of victims, restoration of production and living order, etc.

( III ) Major progress in China's emergency response to earthquake disasters

Plan and legal system. China's earthquake emergency plan started early and began to be established in 1988. In 1991 , the first national-level emergency plan was promulgated. At present, a four-level emergency response plan system has been formed. As of the end of 2009 , there were nearly 30,000 earthquake preplans nationwide . China’s laws such as Emergency Response Act, Earthquake Prevention and Mitigation Act, and Destructive Earthquake Emergency Regulations provide legal protection for earthquake disaster emergency management.

Emergency command management agency. In 2000 , the State Council established the Earthquake Relief Headquarters, and the cities and counties of 31 provinces ( autonomous regions, municipalities ) and major earthquake surveillance and defense areas have established leading groups for earthquake prevention and disaster reduction. Under the framework of the command and relief agencies for earthquake relief at all levels of government, a coordinated linkage mechanism and information sharing mechanism for local, sectoral, military, and social forces in responding to earthquake events have been formed. The earthquake department has established six earthquake emergency assistance linkage areas throughout the country .

Earthquake professional rescue team. In 2001 , the National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Team ( China International Rescue Team ) was formally established. Established nine years, the team performed Wenchuan, Yushu in Qinghai Province, the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, Haiti 11 times at home and abroad earthquake disaster emergency rescue mission, demonstrated the Chinese government's image and strength. November 2009, the Chinese international rescue team through the United Nations International heavy rescue team evaluation, is the world's first 12, Asia's first two heavy rescue team reached the standard of the team. In 2008 , the National Earthquake Emergency Rescue Training Base was officially established and put into use. It can conduct different types of training and training for earthquake emergency rescue teams, emergency management personnel and volunteers.

Emergency command system. At present, the Chinese government and 31 provincial governments have all established earthquake emergency command technology systems and have functions such as disaster estimation, auxiliary decision-making, information notification, and basic data retrieval. Once an earthquake occurs, they can quickly and automatically predict and process earthquakes. Quickly estimate the extent of the possible impact of the earthquake, the extent of the damage, and the casualties.

Emergency supplies protection system. At present, a total of 10 central-level relief material storage warehouses have been established nationwide , and some provinces, cities, and counties have also established local disaster relief material storage warehouses. After the earthquake, disaster relief materials can reach the disaster area within 48 hours. It has 26 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) 181 cities built shelters, to provide security for the people of emergency refuge.

III. Prospects for China's Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue

( A ) Establish a strong quake prevention awareness

To minimize the loss of earthquake disasters as the basic purpose of emergency management of earthquake disasters; to firmly establish the catastrophe prevention awareness of large earthquakes, based on prevention of large earthquakes, rescue disasters, prevention and emergency preparedness from the source.

( II ) Improve and perfect the legal system and plan system

Revise and improve the “Regulations on Destructive Earthquake Emergency Response”; further improve the earthquake emergency rescue standard system; prepare and revise earthquake emergency response plans for all types of earthquakes.

( III ) Improving Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Ability

We will strengthen the construction of earthquake professional rescue teams; vigorously develop socialized emergency rescue service systems; and give full play to the role of the national earthquake rescue training base.

( D ) Improve the Emergency Disposal Ability of Earthquake Disasters

We will improve the emergency command platform for disaster relief headquarters at all levels; carry out trials for earthquake intensity rapid reporting and early warning systems; strengthen the training of emergency management personnel; and promote the pilot application of emergency automated disposal technology for lifeline engineering earthquakes.

( 5 ) Improve the emergency support ability for earthquake disasters

Build national and regional emergency materials support bases; explore the establishment of catastrophic risk protection mechanisms; promote the construction of earthquake emergency shelters; establish and improve the news release mechanisms for earthquake emergencies and long-term mechanisms for earthquake emergency knowledge dissemination.

The author of this article is the Deputy Director of China Seismological Bureau.

I. Product Description

TC-EM-1 is a polymeric emulsifier, which is a low molecular weight, high electropositive organic polymer. It has followed advantages:

1. Easy to use, do not need cooking. Reduce cooking equipment for solid starch and lower down technical condition fluctuation for cooking the starch.

2. Use current water to dilute and prepare, without heating.

3. Provide a strong positive charge to the system

4. High emulsion stability


II. Product Feature


Red brown liquid

Solid content %

25. 50±0.5



PH value




 AKD Emulsifier

III. Product Usage Safety Instruction:

TC-EM-1 may be stimulative to skin and eyes, and it is recommended to use gloves and protective glasses when use. If eye or skin comes into direct contact with this product, immediately rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. 


IV. Application

As a emulsifier and stabilizer of AKD,TC-EM-1 can provide a good stability of the emulsion. With the mechanical stirring, it can disperse AKD as required in the production process, which average particle diameter more than 80% can be less than 1.2 microns. It can also maintain a relative long time after the emulsification, and it has a certain electrical neutral to the slurry.

Please note, under high hardness, the hydrolysis rate of AKD emulsion will be greatly improved. So in order to reduce the rate of hydrolysis, the PH value of emulsified should be controlled between 4.5~5.0 by Citric Acid. TC-EM-1 has low PH value, which saves this part of the operation. 

For certain application, the usage of TC-EM-1 should also follow the operating instructions of our company.


V. Other Information

Package: 1000Kg /IBC barrel

Storage: in cool and dry place, avoid frozen and sunshine

Shelf life: 6 months.

AKD Emulsifier

AKD Emulsifier,Starch Based Emulsifier,AKD Emulsifying Agent,25% AKD Emulsifier

Shandong Tiancheng Chemical Co., Ltd. ,